The Alberta government is being urged to develop a specific strategy to fight opioid deaths among young people and teach “non-fear-based” information about substance abuse in classrooms, starting in elementary school.
Child and Youth Advocate Del Graff issued the call to action after reviewing the cases of 12 male and female youths who died from opioid poisoning between October 2015 and September 2017.
“Increased exposure to prevention and substance-use education, which includes opioids, must be included in the school curriculum from elementary through high school,” says the report, released Tuesday.
Alberta formed a commission last year to develop strategies to reduce opioid deaths but it doesn’t focus on specific problems affecting youth. Graff wants the government to have something by the end of 2019 to prevent more deaths in that age group.
“Young people require special attention because they are developmentally unique from adults,” says the report, titled Into Focus: Calling Attention to Youth Opioid Use in Alberta.
“Substance abuse often begins during adolescence, and young people from 15 to 24 years old are more likely to experience harm related to substance abuse than any other age group.”
According to the report, children are often taught about the dangers of drugs and alcohol during one-time events such as visits from speakers, and are offered introductory information at best.
The report suggests age-appropriate curriculum can be started in elementary grades and carried through high school.
The unique challenges presented by opioid addiction and withdrawal mean the Protection of Children Abusing Drugs Act (PChAD) needs to be updated, according to the report.
The law, passed in 2006 and amended in 2012, allows guardians to get court orders placing their drug- or alcohol-addicted children in safe houses for 10 days. A judge can extend that period by five days.
However, the report found that time frame is insufficient to deal with opioids, which carry a higher risk of overdose.
In some of the cases reviewed, safe houses made the problem worse.
“Six of these 12 young people were confined in a PChAD protective safe house,” the report states. “During their stays, some made harmful connections with peers that increased their risk-taking behaviours.”
Once they left the safe houses, programs to help the teens with the next phase of treatment were not easily accessible.
Some were put on wait lists; others were told they didn’t meet the criteria. Parents feared the stigma of asking for help. Child intervention staff were overworked and didn’t always know where to send people.
Alberta has few programs that treat both substance abuse and mental illness. The resources to help drug or alcohol-addicted youth with cognitive or intellectual disabilities are even more limited, the report says.
In a written statement, Health Minister Sarah Hoffman said she met with Graff yesterday about his report and plans to review his recommendations. She vowed to do everything she could to support children and families.
Multiple court orders
Some of the teens written about in the report were Indigenous, while others were not. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19.
All had contact with Alberta’s child intervention system. Eleven had contact with the justice system. Ten spent time in hospital for drug addictions or psychiatric illnesses. Most came from families experiencing parental break-ups and substance abuse issues.
The youth in Graff’s report were given pseudonyms to protect the privacy of their families.
Emily, 16, was a Métis youth whose mother suffered from mental illness and addictions. Her family life involved exposure to violence and substance abuse. She spent time in foster care when her mother was in addictions treatment, but ran away from her temporary home.
Emily’s mother had her confined under two PChAD orders. After the first term was done, the girl returned home where she may have witnessed substance abuse and violence and had limited access to supports.
Her mother obtained a second PChAD order a month later. After the term expired, Emily wasn’t allowed to return home until she had finished a treatment program. Instead, the teen lived with friends and continued to use drugs. She didn’t work with her caseworker or use other supports.
Six weeks later she was found unresponsive. She died four days later in hospital from methamphetamine and fentanyl poisoning.
Eva, 18, also died of methamphetamine and fentanyl poisoning. Like Emily, she was confined to safe houses under two PChAD orders.
After the first order, Eva moved back home with her parents but ran away that same night. She was arrested a week later with someone she had met at the safe house.
Three months later, she was arrested for break and enter, stealing a truck and using stolen credit cards.
The second PChAD order kept her in confinement for 15 days.
Eva agreed to undergo addictions counselling upon her release, but her attendance was sporadic. After staying off intravenous drugs for a couple of weeks, Eva was found unconscious near her home and later died in hospital.